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2017 西行漫记之序

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“大漠荒凉踏冰川,丝路苍茫走泥丸,西域雄城今安在?谁人不言嘉裕关。”

一直想去西边走走,一是想故地重游;二是因为2017年计划去欧州旅行,想着去之前再重温一下曾经的汉唐盛世。只是不到西部不知吾国之辽阔,除了西安这个我俩初次相遇的古都以外,还有太多想去的地方,短短8天时间的行程竟迟迟定不下来。

直到有一天在网上闲逛时不经意读到纽约时报记者Holland Cotter于2008年写的一篇关于敦煌的文章: Buddha’s Caves 后才有了头绪。在文章中,作者以西方的视角讨论了莫高窟的历史和文化价值,重新勾起护法我对敦煌的念想。记得2002年曾经跟着公司年会组的团懵懵懂懂地去过一次,想来当年的自己和 Cotter笔下描写的中国游客很相似。

“I watch buses of Chinese tourists arrive from hotels in town, coming early, before the heat of day. Several are teenagers or a little older, plugged into iPods, taking photos with cellphones, in an antic mood. Together they troop across the barrier bridge that leads to the caves. They’re wearing hard-soled shoes. They laugh, some inside joke. They do not mind making noise.

Exactly what they are looking for at Mogaoku, or will find, is hard to know; they seem so distracted, so somewhere else. Yet just before reaching the cave they stop and linger, as do other, older visitors, over a small text-and-photo display. It documents Wang Yuanlu’s presence here a century ago and describes the visits of Stein, Pelliot and Warner and what they took away. Maybe this is what Mogaoku means to its new audience: not art, not faith but cultural heritage with a loaded political history.”

思想太年轻的时候去看历史的确会无所适从,心浮气躁;眼睛里看着色彩绚丽的洞窟壁画,脑子里想着又能在 To-do list上挑了一个勾拍些照片晒晒朋友圈,而心思却已经飞到下一个景点鸣沙山去了。跟着讲解员转了一圈出来,只觉得天气太热腿脚有点酸。

那次旅行唯一记住的是在离开莫高窟时不经意一回头想再看一眼九层楼高的大佛殿的时候,瞟见几个日本人模样的游客一步一趋地跟在工作人员身后正在往我们没去过的那些位于高处的洞窟走去。于是问我们的讲解员他们在做什么。讲解员淡淡地说:“那些日本人是来看特窟的” 又问“ 什么是特窟?道:“需要另外买票单独参观的洞窟”。再问:“多少钱呢?” 道:“每个特窟200-300 不等,全部加起来2000元左右。”护法吐吐舌头说:“真贵,都什么人能去得起呢?” 讲解员看了我一眼,停顿了一下,小叹了一口气才说:“贵吗?来看特窟的基本上都是日本人,他们来这里寻根。”

日本文化本是大陆汉文化向外扩展之边缘,其中的佛教文化,对日本影响既深且广直至现今。而莫高窟里有着全世界最完整的佛教演变记载,从公元366年第一个洞窟的开凿一直到14世纪明朝退守嘉峪关为止,叮叮咚咚的声音持续了千年不断,详细地记录了汉民族的政治,宗教和文化的变迁,内容涉及到服装,音乐,礼仪,饮食等生活各方面,难怪日本人对此地如此着迷。想着边缘文化竟比中土大地更注重学习母体文明,心里不禁产生愧意。暗暗许了个愿,以后一定要再来一次,认认真真地把普窟和特窟都参观一遍。

许完这个愿一转身就是十多年。随着敦煌加快旅游致富的步伐,修高铁,开公路,改建机场,莫高窟知名度越来越高,慕名而来的人也越来越多。曾经无比干燥的洞窟环境开始受到人体湿度的影响,风化破坏加重了。为了保护洞窟内的古迹,莫高窟先是安装了隔离玻璃,然后限制旺季参观人数,及至这两年兴建了全方位数字体验中心,可以预计在不远的将来,莫高窟的实体窟会全面关闭。

Plans for drastic remedial action are in place. Under Dr. Fan and the vice director, Wang Xudong, the academy will build by 2011 a new visitor reception center several miles from the caves, near the airport and railroad station. All Mogaoku-bound travelers will be required to go to the center first, where they will be given an immersive introduction to the caves’ history, digital tours of interiors and simulated restorations on film of damaged images. They will then be shuttled to the site itself, where they will take in the ambience of its desert-edge locale and see the insides of one or two caves before returning to where they started.

For Chinese visitors a partly virtual approach may not feel unusual. Many museums in China give equal time to art objects and information technology. Multimedia evocations of sites are common: it is the only way to see excavated tomb frescos too sensitive to light and air to be removed from the underground. And it is common practice substitute copies of famous works of art in museums when the originals are unavailable.”

也许大多数的中国游客真的会满足于高保真的数字体验,就像Cotter预测的那样;可是护法不会,掌门也不会。那种与古人同呼吸的历史真实感只能去现场体验。 于是2017年饕餮世家的西行计划有了方向:敦煌。

 

2017 西行漫记行程安排如下:

2017年4月15-17日 西安
2017年4月17-18日 嘉峪关
2017年4月18-22日 敦煌

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Showing 3 comments

  • 老虎
    Reply

    喊了十几年要去。没你们潇洒。

    • 饕餮世家
      Reply

      数字中心已经建好了,很可能实体窟就看不到了。

      • 老虎
        Reply

        那也没办法了。反正本来也不能拍照了。看看数字中心就算了。

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